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Long shots: Galaxies from 13.2 billion years ago

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From page A8 | January 08, 2014 | 3 Comments

Space Distant Galaxies

This undated image made available by the European Space Agency and NASA on Tuesday, Jan. 7, 2014 shows galaxies in the Abell 2744 cluster, and blue galaxies behind it, distorted and amplified by gravitational lensing. The long-exposure image taken with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope shows some of the intrinsically faintest and youngest galaxies ever detected in visible light. (AP Photo/ESA/NASA)

WASHINGTON — The Hubble Space Telescope has peered back to a chaotic time 13. 2 billion years ago when never-before-seen galaxies were tiny, bright blue and full of stars bursting to life all over the place.

Thanks to some complex physics tricks, NASA’s aging telescope is just starting to see the universe at its infancy in living color and detail.

Images released by NASA on Tuesday show galaxies that are 20 times fainter than those pictured before. They are from a new campaign to have the 23-year-old Hubble gaze much earlier and farther away than it was designed to see.

“I like to call it cosmic dawn,” Hubble astronomer Jennifer Lotz said at the American Astronomical Society convention in Washington. “It’s when the lights are coming on.”

It was a time when star formation was ramping up, and it was far more hectic than now.

“Imagine if you went back 500 million years after the Big Bang and looked around in the sky,” astronomer Garth Illingworth of the University of California Santa Cruz said. “Galaxies are closer. They’re smaller. They’re bright blue and they’re everywhere…They are probably blobby, small, nothing like our Milky Way.”

There were probably no metals at this time, no Earths, said Illingworth, who was on the scientific team using Hubble.

“Things look clumpy and kind of weird,” Lotz said.

Most of the galaxies then were close to 1,000 times smaller than our Milky Way, but astronomers said they were surprised to discover a few brighter, bigger galaxies sparkling out there.

These first pictures showed nearly 3,000 galaxies. Astronomers are still trying to figure out which of those galaxies are ancient and which are more recent.

Because light travels nearly 6 trillion miles a year, as telescopes look farther from Earth they see earlier into the past.

While Hubble and other telescopes using different light wavelengths have seen this far back, this is the first complete set of photos in the visible light spectrum that the human eye sees.

To do this, Hubble is using one of Albert Einstein’s concepts that massive clusters of galaxies have such super gravity that they magnify and stretch light, Lotz said. By focusing on clusters, astronomers use them as natural binoculars to see what’s behind them.

The release of the images is significant and important, said Christopher Conselice, a professor at the University of Nottingham in England. Conselice was not part of the Hubble team.

“It’ll tell us about how the universe is forming and evolving,” Conselice said after the astronomers’ presentation. “I think they understated it. It could be a fundamental thing.”

___

Online:

Hubble: http://hubblesite.org/

The Associated Press

The Associated Press

LEAVE A COMMENT

Discussion | 3 comments

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  • The MisterJanuary 08, 2014 - 6:38 am

    Billions and billions of years ago... Why is it always "billions and billions of years"?

    Reply | Report abusive comment
  • MadelineJanuary 08, 2014 - 8:08 am

    Good Morning Mister, why billions of years? Because light travels 299,792.458 km/s and the photo we are looking at is yesterdays photo. Think of it this way, when you drive across the country xmiles/hr and take photos then eventually stop days later. Your photos are days old and show a past which no longer exists yet you can look back. The hubble just happens to be able to go back through light which is still traveling forward. Make sense? Of course there there is a lot more to it but think of it like that and you'll easier understand how those kilometers and years add up to billions.

    Reply | Report abusive comment
  • ?January 08, 2014 - 8:40 am

    I think he is saying that Time is Relative......to your point of view of Creation vs Big Bang.

    Reply | Report abusive comment
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